The main component of automobile mold is the cover mold. This type of mold is mainly cold die. In a broad sense, "automotive mold" is a general term for molds used to make all parts of an automobile. For example, stamping molds, injection molds, forging molds, casting wax molds, glass molds, and the like.
The stamped parts on the car body are roughly divided into cover parts, beam parts and general stamped parts. A stamped part that can clearly express the characteristics of a car is a car cover. Therefore, the more specific automotive mold can be said to be "automotive panel stamping mold". Referred to as automobile cover die. For example, front door outer panel trimming die, front door inner panel punching die, etc.
Of course, not only the car body has stamped parts. Dies for all stamping parts on automobiles are called "automotive stamping dies". To sum it up:
1. Automobile mold is a general term for molds used to make all parts of automobiles.
2. Automotive stamping dies are dies for punching all stamped parts on automobiles.
3. Auto body stamping die is a die for punching all stamped parts on the car body.
4. Automobile cover stamping die is a die for punching all the covers on the car body.
Now when we say in this section that automobile molds all refer to automobile cover dies. In order not to be confused with the general automobile die, it is best to use a car cover die instead of a car die when posting.
There are many types of stamping dies, and the dies are also classified according to the three aspects of working properties, mold structure and mold materials.
Generally can be classified according to the following main characteristics:
1. Classification according to process properties
a. Punching die: A die that separates the material along the closed or open contour line. Such as blanking die, punching die, cutting die, cutting die, trimming die, cutting die and so on.
b. Bending mold: A mold that bends the sheet blank or other blank along a straight line (bending line) to obtain a workpiece with a certain angle and shape.
c. Deep-drawing die: It is a die that makes the blank of the sheet metal into an open hollow part, or further changes the shape and size of the hollow part.
d. Forming mold: It is a mold that directly copies the blank or semi-finished workpiece according to the shape of the convex and concave molds, and the material itself only produces local plastic deformation. Such as bulging die, necking die, flaring die, undulating forming die, flanging die, shaping die and so on.
2. Classification according to the degree of process combination
a. Single process die: A die that completes only one stamping process in one stroke of the press.
b. Compound mold: a mold with only one station, which can complete two or more stamping processes at the same station in one stroke of the press.
c. Progressive die (also known as continuous die): in the feed direction of the blank, there are two or more stations, in a stroke of the press, complete two or two successively at different stations. Die for the above stamping process.
3. Classification by product processing method
Depending on the product processing method, the mold can be divided into five categories: punching and shearing mold, bending mold, drawing mold, forming mold and compression mold.
a. Punching and shearing dies: The work is completed by shearing. Commonly used forms are shearing dies, blanking dies, punching dies, trimming dies, trimming dies, punching dies and punching dies.
b. Bending mold: It is to bend the flat blank into an angle shape. Depending on the shape, accuracy and production volume of the part, there are many different forms of molds, such as ordinary bending dies, cam bending dies, curling. Punching dies, arc bending dies, bending embossing dies and twisting dies.
c. Drawing mold: The drawing mold is a flat container with a bottom and a seamless container.
d. Forming mold: refers to using various local deformation methods to change the shape of the blank. The forms include embossing forming dies, curling forming dies, necking forming dies, hole flange forming dies, and round edge forming dies.
e. Compression mold: It uses strong pressure to deform the metal blank into a desired shape. Its types include extrusion dies, embossing dies, embossing dies, and end-pressure dies.
In the development of the automotive mold industry at home and abroad, China's automotive mold industry's production and marketing needs and transformation and upgrading of forward-looking mold technology have shown the following nine development trends.
Automotive mould development trends
1.Consolidation of mold 3D design status
The three-dimensional design of the mold is an important content of the digital mold technology, and it is the basis for the integration of mold design, manufacturing and inspection. Japan's Toyota, American GM and other companies have realized the three-dimensional design of the mold and achieved good application results. Some of the approaches adopted in the 3D design of molds abroad are worthy of our reference. In addition to the three-dimensional design of the mold, which is conducive to the realization of integrated manufacturing, another advantage is that it is convenient for interference inspection and can perform motion interference analysis, which solves a problem in two-dimensional design.
2, the simulation of stamping process (CAE) is more prominent
In recent years, with the rapid development of computer software and hardware, the simulation technology (CAE) of the stamping process has played an increasingly important role. In developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and Germany, CAE technology has become a necessary part of the mold design and manufacturing process. It is widely used to predict forming defects, optimize stamping processes and mold structures, improve the reliability of mold design, and reduce mold test time. Many domestic automotive mold companies have also made significant progress in the application of CAE and achieved good results. The application of CAE technology can greatly save the cost of test molds, shorten the development cycle of stamping molds, and has become an important means to ensure mold quality. CAE technology is gradually transforming mold design from empirical design to scientific design.
3.Digital mold technology has become the mainstream
The digital mold technology, which has been rapidly developed in recent years, is an effective way to solve many problems faced in the development of automotive molds. The so-called digital mold technology is the application of computer technology or computer-aided technology (CAX) in the mold design and manufacturing process. Summarizing the successful experience of applying computer-aided technology to automotive mold companies at home and abroad, digital automotive mold technology mainly includes the following aspects: ① Design for manufacturability (DFM), which considers and analyzes manufacturability during design to ensure the success of the process. ② Auxiliary technology for mold surface design, develop intelligent surface design technology. ③CAE assists in analyzing and simulating the process of stamping forming, predicting and solving possible defects and forming problems. ④ Replace the traditional two-dimensional design with the three-dimensional mold structure design. ⑤CAPP, CAM and CAT technologies are used in the manufacturing process of the mold. ⑥ Under the guidance of digital technology, deal with and solve problems that occur during the mold trial process and stamping production.
4. Rapid development of mold processing automation
Advanced processing technology and equipment is an important basis for improving productivity and ensuring product quality. It is not uncommon to have a double-table CNC machine tool, an automatic tool changer (ATC), a photoelectric control system for automatic processing, and an online workpiece measurement system in advanced automotive mold companies. NC machining has developed from simple profile processing to comprehensive processing of profiles and structural surfaces, from low to medium speed processing to high speed processing, and processing automation technology has developed rapidly.
5. High-strength steel stamping technology is the future development direction
High-strength steels have excellent characteristics in terms of yield ratio, strain hardening characteristics, strain distribution ability, and collision energy absorption, and their use in automobiles is increasing. At present, the high-strength steels used in automotive stamping parts are mainly paint-hardened steel (BH steel), dual-phase steel (DP steel), and phase-induced plasticity steel (TRIP steel). The International Ultra Light Body Project (ULSAB) predicts that 97% of the advanced concept models (ULSAB-AVC) launched in 2010 will be high-strength steel, and the proportion of advanced high-strength steel plates in the vehicle will exceed 60%, of which dual-phase The proportion of steel will account for 74% of automotive steel plates.
Currently, a large number of IF steel-based soft steel series will be replaced by high-strength steel plates, and high-strength low-alloy steels will be replaced by dual-phase steels and ultra-high-strength steel plates. At present, the application of domestic high-strength steel plates for automotive parts is mostly limited to structural parts and beams, and the tensile strength of the materials used is mostly below 500 MPa. Therefore, quickly mastering the high-strength steel sheet stamping technology is an important problem to be solved urgently in China's automotive mold industry.
6. New mold products are launched at the right time
With the development of high efficiency and automation of automotive stamping production, progressive die will be more widely used in the production of automotive stamping parts. Progressive die is a high-tech mold product, which is technically difficult, requires high manufacturing accuracy, and has a long production cycle. Multi-stage progressive die will be one of the key mold products in China. Stamping parts with complex shapes, especially some According to the traditional process, small and medium-sized complex stamping parts that require multiple pairs of punches to be punched in sequence are increasingly using progressive die forming.
7. Mold materials and surface treatment technologies will be reused
The quality and performance of mold materials are important factors affecting mold quality, life and cost. In recent years, in addition to the continuous introduction of a variety of high toughness and high wear resistance cold work die steels, flame quenched cold work die steels, and powder metallurgy cold work die steels, the use of cast iron materials in large and medium-sized stamping dies abroad is worthwhile. Attention to development trends. Ductile iron has good toughness and wear resistance, and its welding performance, workability, and surface hardening performance are also good, and the cost is lower than alloy cast iron, so it is more used in automotive stamping molds.
8. Scientific management and informatization are the development direction of mold enterprises
另一个 Another important aspect of the development of automotive mold technology is the scientific and informational management. The scientific management makes the mold enterprises continue to develop in the direction of Just-in-Time Manufacturing and Lean Production. The enterprise management is more precise, the production efficiency is greatly improved, and the invalid institutions, links and personnel are continuously streamlined. With the advancement of modern management technology, many advanced information management tools, including enterprise resource management system (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), project management (PM), etc. It is widely used.
9. Fine manufacturing of molds is an inevitable trend
The so-called fine mold manufacturing refers to the development process and manufacturing results of the mold. It is specifically manifested in the rationalization of stamping process and mold structure design, high precision of mold processing, high reliability of mold products and strict technical management. In fact, the precision mold manufacturing is not a single technology, and the second is the comprehensive reflection of design, processing and management technology. In addition to the technical excellence, the realization of mold precision manufacturing must also be guaranteed by strict management.
At the end of August 2011, China ’s car ownership exceeded 100 million for the first time, and the country ’s motor vehicle ownership reached 219 million. In 2011, a total of 18.418 million vehicles were produced. It is estimated that by 2020, China's car ownership will exceed 200 million units, and annual updates will still be as high as 15 million units. With an annual export volume of about 5 million units, the annual output of automobiles will remain at the scale of 20 million units.
China is the world's largest automobile production and sales country, and it is expected to have the world's largest car ownership, but it still cannot produce its own high-end cars. This has a lot to do with the lagging development of the auto mold industry known as the "mother of the automobile industry" .
Automotive molds refer to molds used in the automotive field and are known as the "mother of the automotive industry". More than 90% of parts and components in automobile production rely on mold forming.
Automotive body molds, especially large and medium-sized cover molds, are an important part of the body manufacturing technology and a key link in the formation of automotive independent development capabilities. Automotive mold products include automobile cover molds, tire molds, interior and exterior plastic molds, lamp molds, automobile bumper molds, automobile instrument panel molds, and so on.
In developed countries such as Germany, the United States, and Japan, more than 40% of the products in the mold industry are automotive molds, while only about one-third of the mold products in China serve the automotive industry. In general, about 1,500 molds are needed to make an ordinary car, of which there are nearly 1,000 stamping molds and more than 200 interior molds. Affected by the rapid development of China's automotive industry, China's automotive mold industry has shown rapid growth and the market capacity has continued to expand. And with the continuous optimization of the industrial structure of the automotive mold industry and the continuous progress of technology, the proportion of high-end automotive mold products in the entire industry has gradually increased, and it is expected that the average annual growth rate in the next five years will still exceed 15%.